EU, EEA, EFTA and Schengen countries

What are the 28 EU countries? What are the EEA and the EFTA? And which countries are members of the Schengen area? See the lists of countries below.

The 28 EU countries

The European Union (EU) has 28 member states:

  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland)

EU candidate countries

There are five EU candidate countries. These are countries that are already in the process of incorporating EU legislation into national law.

  • Turkey
  • Montenegro
  • Macedonia
  • Serbia
  • Albania

Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo are potential candidates. These are countries that do not yet meet the conditions for EU membership.

The 31 EEA countries

EEA stands for European Economic Area. There are 31 EEA countries:

  • The 28 EU member states plus
  • Liechtenstein
  • Iceland
  • Norway

The 4 EFTA countries

EFTA stands for European Free Trade Association. It has 4 member states:

  • Iceland
  • Liechtenstein
  • Norway
  • Switzerland

The 26 Schengen countries

The Schengen area consists of 22 of the 28 EU member states plus the 4 EFTA countries:

  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland

The EU member states Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ireland, Croatia, Romania and the United Kingdom are not Schengen countries.