Update: New changes regarding travel measures to the Netherlands as of 16 March 2021
People in the following categories are allowed to enter the Netherlands for a short period again: business travelers, students, highly-skilled migrants, professionals from the cultural and creative sectors and people in long-distance romantic relationships. For more information please follow this link: https://www.government.nl/topics/coronavirus-covid-19/visiting-the-netherlands-from-abroad/exemptions-to-the-entry-ban/eu-entry-ban-exemption-categories
Passengers who fly to the Netherlands only to transfer to another international flight, do not need to show the result of a rapid test and will only need to present the results of an NAAT (PCR) test based on a sample collected no more than 72 hours before.
Travelers aged 13 and over from high-risk countries must be able to show the results of a negative NAAT (PCR) test based on a sample collected no more than 24 hours before boarding if they would like to travel without rapid test.
Or: they must present a negative rapid test result based on a sample collected no more than 24 hours prior to boarding and a negative NAAT (PCR) test result based on a sample collected no more than 72 hours earlier.
Instead of providing the results of a rapid test based on a sample collected no more than 24 hours prior to boarding, air crew can opt to present the results of a NAAT (PCR) test based on a sample collected no more than 72 hours before arrival.
You can see where to get a rapid test at airports in Nur-Sultan and Almaty here: https://www.netherlandsworldwide.nl/documents/frequently-asked-questions/where-can-i-get-a-pcr-or-rapid-test-outside-the-netherlands